Wednesday, July 31, 2019
A Bit of Singing and Dancing by Susan Hill is the short story of Esme Fanshaw, who following a lifetime of caring after her bedridden tyrannical mother, is finally set free. Although forced by her mother to live modestly, Esme inherits 6,000 pounds from her late, stingy mother. With so much cash in hand, she has great plans for her immediate and far future, among which travelling and moving to London: Ã¢â¬Å"She felt flushed and a little drunk then, she felt that all things were possible, the future was in her power, and she wanted to shout and sing and dance, standing alone in the February twilight, looking at the deserted beach. Confused by her newfound freedom and feeling guilty for wanting her mother to die, Esme receives an unexpected visit by Mr Amos Curry, a salesman, who is interested in renting a room. For a woman who Ã¢â¬Å"knew nothing about the habits of men,Ã¢â¬ Esme is at first taken aback by her own decision to accept the stranger as her tenant.But soon things chang e and Esme realizes that she is Ã¢â¬Å"the sort of person who needs to give service,Ã¢â¬ just as she did for so many years when her sick mother was still alive. But how will Mr Amos afford paying the rent during the summer, when his sales drop, rests with the reader to find out by reading the short story. Susan Hill is a British short story writer, novelist, playwright and critic. She was born in 1942.
In his article Ã¢â¬Å" Time Talk, with an AccentÃ¢â¬ Robert Levine discusses about culture shock when he lived in Brazil and understand Brazilian peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s habit about time. When he began his scientific journey in his early career as a professor of psychology at Federal University in Niteroi, Brazil and he found the hardest part of his life about punctual time rather than different language, his own privacy, and standards of cleanliness issues.As it described in article Robert Levine was a young American, that always cling on with timing in every hours, every minutes, and every seconds. He was taught to move fast in every way he did. In fact, Brazil has another thought of time, to slow down and do it later. It started when he lessons began in 10 oÃ¢â¬â¢clock, only a few students showed up, and another came late with smiled and relaxed, some of them greeted him with innocent, some of them apologized, some of them just came a minute when class came to end.At that time, he re alized that brazilian timepieces are inaccurate, and it seemed nobody care beside him. Furthermore, time made him to wait about one and half hour when he wanted to see his chefe. Until his chefe called him to come in and chatted for a few minutes because she had to run for another appointment at the same time. Robert Levine learned that she is a type person who like to make a lots of appointment for the same time and to be late for all of them.Another time case, he had to wait for his appointment with his landlord, he planned to came back after twenty minutes. In fact, he found out the landlord gotten tired of waiting for him. Angry, frustrated, bewildered, and fascinated made him understand about how BraziliansÃ¢â¬â¢ beliefs and rules about punctuality. In the end, there are drastic differences from culture to culture, city to city, and neighbor to neighbor. He explained only time can tell those differences.
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
|Anheuser-Busch InBev | | | |[pic] | | | |Balanced Scorecard | |Executing the Strategic Plan | | | | | | | | |Throughout the business environment it seems that almost every profession has some means of communicating clearly to the end user. However, for people engaged in strategic planning there has been an on-going dilemma. The finished product, the strategic plan, has not been communicated well enough to reach the end user. Strategic plans may be great to look at, full of bar charts, nice covers, well written, and professionally prepared; but they often fall short and fail to impact the people who must execute the strategic plan. The end result has been poor execution of the strategic plan throughout the entire organization; and execution is everything. Upper management creates the strategy, but execution takes place from the bottom up.According to the Balance Scorecard Collaborative, there are four barriers to strategic implementation: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Vision Barrier Ã¢â¬â No one in the organization understands the strategies of the organization. Ã¢â¬ ¢ People Barrier Ã¢â¬â Most people have objectives that are not linked to the strategy of the organization. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Resource Barrier Ã¢â¬â Time, energy, and money are not allocated to those things that are critical to the organization. For example, budgets are not linked to strategy, resulting in wasted resources. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Management Barrier Ã¢â¬â Management spends too little time on strategy and too much time on short-term tactical decision-making.Implementing the Balanced Scorecard as a management tool creates clarity in the communication of strategy. By using measurements and targets, employees can relate to what must happen and the result is higher productivity that results in the achievement of company goals. This is achieved through four strategic objectives: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Financial Ã¢â¬â Delivering expected financial results for investors. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Customer Ã¢â¬â Delivering value and benefits fo r customers. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Internal Processes Ã¢â¬â The set of processes that must be in place in order to meet the requirements of customers. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Learning and Growth Ã¢â¬â the set of values and principles related to intangibles (employees, systems, and organization), supporting and providing the required internal processes.The financial and customer perspectives represent the deliverables, and the internal processes and learning and growth perspectives represent those things the organization must do. Balanced Scorecards tell you the knowledge, skills and systems that your employees will need (learning and growth) to innovate and build the right strategic capabilities and efficiencies (internal processes) that deliver specific value to the market (customer) which will eventually lead to higher shareholder value (financial). Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"Having Trouble with Your Strategy? Then Map ItÃ¢â¬ by Robert S. Kaplan and David P. Norton Ã¢â¬â Harvard Business Review Anheuser-Busch InBev (AB InBev) is a good example of institution theory working at its best as it uses a strong mission and vision statement for adaptation in growing markets.A solid mission statement is a vital part of any company as it states the purpose or reason for the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s existence, which in turn, establishes the parameters for the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic plan. Moreover, it tells society what the company is providing: service or product. As the textbook points out, Ã¢â¬Å"a well-conceived mission statement defines the fundamental, unique purpose that sets a company apart from other firms of its type and identifies the scope or domain of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s operations in terms of products/services offered and markets servedÃ¢â¬ (Wheelen, et al 13). Mission statements throughout an industry can vary greatly, and the alcoholic beverage industry is no exception.Anheuser-Busch strives to Ã¢â¬Å"Be the best beer company in a better world; and to Ã¢â¬Å"Deliver superior re turns to our shareholdersÃ¢â¬ (Anheuser-Busch). This mission statement clearly defines who they are, Ã¢â¬Å"The best beer companyÃ¢â¬ , and it also identifies the scope of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s operations, as they would like to deliver superior returns to their shareholders. Having a narrow business statement, which very clearly states the organizations primary business, helps AB InBev in this tough economy because it keeps the firm focused on what it does the best. The vision statement is the framework for the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic planning, and it also allows a way to let potential customers become aware of what the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s future goals are.The vision statement often states a unique purpose that the business hopes to achieve, but it should primarily be focused on what the company wishes to become. AB InBevÃ¢â¬â¢s vision statement is Ã¢â¬Å"Through all of our products, services and relationships, we add to lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s enjoymentÃ¢â¬ . Moreover, their goal is to be the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s beer company, their unique purpose is to enrich and entertain a global audience, and their scope of their operations is to provide superior returns to their shareholders (Anheuser-Busch). The Financial Perspective: The first aspect of the Balanced Scorecard is the financial perspective, which answers two questions: How do we appear to shareholders?And how should we act with respect to the shareholders in order to achieve financial success? According to their annual financial report, AB InBev remains focused on three core objectives designed to enhance long-term shareholder value: Increasing domestic beer segment volume and per barrel profitability which, when combined with market share growth, will provide the basis for earnings per share growth and improvement in return on capital employed. A number of acquisitions, divestitures and joint ventures influenced Anheuser-Busch InBevÃ¢â¬â¢s profit and financial profile over the past couple of years. Profitabil ity is the first objective of the financial component that is considered in AB InBevÃ¢â¬â¢s Balanced Scorecard.There are several ways in which to measure the profitability of a company including Return on Equity (ROE). Return on Equity is defined as the amount of net income returned as a percentage of shareholders equity. ROE measures the rate of return on the ownership interest (shareholders' equity) of the common stock owners. It measures a firm's efficiency at generating profits from every unit of shareholders' equity and shows how well a company uses investment funds to generate earnings growth. The benefit comes from the earnings reinvested in the company at a high ROE rate, which in turn gives the company a high growth rate. ROEs between 15% and 20% are considered desirable (Woolridge, et al 2006).AB InBev is committed to high ROE as is depicted in this statement on their Web site, Ã¢â¬Å"Our business is guided by strict financial discipline, enabling us to free up funds for investments in growth, while we also benchmark and measure our performance to ensure that we deliver on our commitmentsÃ¢â¬ . Another objective in the financial component includes revenue growth. This is manifested through, ideally, a positive percent change in revenue from year to year. This revenue increase can be initiated in many ways including increasing unit sales, which is one of the financial goals laid out in the AB InBev financial statements. Currently, AB InBevÃ¢â¬â¢s revenue is $36,297M, up 4. 4% from the previous year.According to the latest AB InBev financial report, their earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT) is up 6. 5% from last year in spite of an overall decrease in North American earnings due to synergies and lower cost of sales. [pic] The first exhibit shows how the dollar amount sales of Craft Brewers, which includes Anheuser-Busch, starts to fall with the economy in 2005 and hitting a low in 2006. Slowly however, the industry is making a recovery. Rob ert S. Weinberg, principal of the Office of R. S. Weinberg- a research company located in St. Louis, stated in an interview that Ã¢â¬Å"the nature of competition in the industry has changed radically in the last two yearsÃ¢â¬ (a ixed forecastÃ¢â¬ ¦) With the economy still on the rocks, and EuropeÃ¢â¬â¢s economy on the offensive as well, many industries are having a hard time coping with the stress. Anheuser is affected by both economies as it operates not only in the USA but in Europe as well. As previous stated, AnheuserÃ¢â¬â¢s strong mission statement, values and dedicated employees come into play here as it gives them a boost that other companies may be lacking. Furthermore, analyses are making predictions that although the economy remains slow, Ã¢â¬Å"Craft beer sales will continue to explode, with 10% growth in 2011 on a larger base, particularly large format bottles, fueled by a rash of positive press in the general mediaÃ¢â¬ ( Beer Business Daily). The third object ive in the financial segment is debt management.Currently, AB InBev has a net debt to normalized EBIT ratio of 2. 9. Within the past year overall debt has been decreased by $5500M in 2009, AB InBev reported debt of $45 174, and $39 704 in 2010. The Customer Perspective: The second aspect of the Balanced Scorecard addresses two questions surrounding the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s customers: How do customers view us? And how should we approach our customers in order to realize our vision? AB InBev seeks to provide their customers with a high level of value by focusing on responsive supply as an objective and providing on-time delivery. On-time delivery means that AB InBev customers will get what they want, when they want it.Since 1994 AB InBev has an established multi-disciplinary Production and Logistics team whose focus is to re-engineer the supply chain to better cope with the challenges of complexity. Since AB InBev is involved in two logistically distinct businesses Ã¢â¬â established hi gh-volume products and low-volume Ã¢â¬Å"growthÃ¢â¬ products, with the latter accounting for over 80% of brand/package combinations and only 10% of total volume, effectively managing the supply chain is of great importance in order to provide customers with the highest level of value and service possible. Growth products represent important market opportunities, but they have greater demand variability than the established products, require greater flexibility, and impose more costs and complexity throughout the supply chain.In order to reach the goal of on-time delivery, the team recommended a series of strategic initiatives, beginning with re-engineering of production and inventory deployment, proceeding to transportation, and culminating in order fulfillment. The growth products were assigned to fewer plants with shorter production cycles, and their inventory was predominantly deployed across 35 wholesaler support centers throughout the U. S. The resulting improvements have be en dramatic: Ã¢â¬ ¢ 90% of low-volume items are now within 200 miles of their destination, compared to 25% previously. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Costs of purchasing, operations, and transportation are minimized without loss of customer service. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Anheuser-Busch is well positioned for future expansion in its growth segment.An important element of the re-engineering effort was an initiative called Ã¢â¬Å"Transportation Advantage,Ã¢â¬ which involved review and re-configuration of the transportation processes for both long haul and short-haul delivery of beer to wholesalers. The objective was to lower costs and improve service by leveraging the buying power for all brewery inbound and outbound transportation, including truck and rail, through one customer Ã¢â¬â Anheuser-Busch (John, et al). According to the report, AB InBev was able to produce the follow results in the following areas: In Brewery Operations: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Partial pallets into support center territories have been reduced 56%. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Interplant shipments have been reduced 78%. Items per brewery load have been reduced 41%. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Transportation costs have been reduced 15%. In Wholesaler and Support Center Operations: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Wholesale support center costs are 7% below expectations. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Transportation service is 99% on-time or early. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Wholesaler Out-of-Stocks have decreased 30%. By incorporating specific strategies, AB InBev was able to reach their on-time delivery goal of 99% while reaping additional benefits in terms of cost reduction and product growth positioning. The goal is to maintain this competitive advantage by continuing to monitor their supply chain, making changes where needed, and eventually reach their goal of 100% on-time delivery for their clientele.The second area that AB InBev focuses in on in order to service their customers best is in the realm of customer satisfaction. A study referred to by the Brookston Beer Bulletin shows that AB InBevÃ¢â¬â¢s beer drinker satisfaction fell from its all-time high of 84 in 2009 by 2. 4% to 82, driven by a sharp decline for AB InBev products. In 2008, shortly after its acquisition by Belgian InBev, AB InBev recorded its best American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) score ever and captured the industry lead. Now that gain has disappeared as the sales of the Budweiser brand fell by almost 10% during 2009 as younger drinkers have increasingly turned to microbrews and low-calorie products. Now the ratings are stalled across the beer industry with a low of 81 and a high of 83.An article published by the Pittsburg post talks about how the modern day drinker is more Ã¢â¬Å"sophisticatedÃ¢â¬ and more willing to try something new, Ã¢â¬Å"looking for different beverages that are appropriate for different occasionsÃ¢â¬ (Boselovic, Len). Boselovic goes on to say, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦more importantly, the modern day drinker doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to be seen as a guzzler, a dumb guy, six-pack drinkerÃ¢â¬ ¦they want to be seen as a c onnoisseurÃ¢â¬ . AB InBev has responded to this latest information by invoking a Fresh Ideas Initiative, encouraging employees to think about beer in a whole different way. This led to the introduction of Beach Blond Ale in 2006 with an advertising message of its Ã¢â¬Å"rich golden color, pleasant hop aroma and slightly spicy malty tasteÃ¢â¬ .In subsequent years, AB InBev has continued to produce more new products including Tilt, a raspberry flavor premium malt beverage infused with caffeine, guarana and ginseng; BE, a beer that combines the drinkability and broad appeal of beer also with the combination of caffeine, ginseng and guarana; Bacardi Silver Watermelon and Budweiser Select, are all taking their place in the beer category along with such brand powerhouses as Budweiser, Bud Light and Michelob to challenge the established perception of beer and expand its market over the long run (Boselovic). By using the strategy of responding to customer demand and preferences by intro ducing new and exciting beverage options, AB InBev hopes to regain the lead in the ACSI Index and even surpass their previous all-time high. The third objective for AB InBev regarding their customer base pertains to market share growth. Large market-share percentages are a strong indicator that customers perceive value in a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s product and are willing to spend their hard-earned dollars on the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s products. Currently, AB InBev holds close to half of the American beer market.In recent press releases, AB has revealed its plans to pursue international beer market segments including China (which is currently the fastest growing beer market and the second largest next to the United States), and Belgium. According to AB InBevÃ¢â¬â¢s CEO, Carlos Brito, the company may seek acquisitions to keep pace with market growth. Even as the company focuses on revenue growth on its own, it wonÃ¢â¬â¢t rule out purchasing rivals, including in Germany, where it plans to incre ase its market share Ã¢â¬Å"significantly,Ã¢â¬ (Johnson). In pursuit of its interest to increase international beer segment profit growth, Anheuser-Busch has made significant marketing investments to build recognition of its Budweiser brands outside the United States. These investments include owning and operating breweries in China, including Harbin Brewery Group, and in the United Kingdom.The company also has a 50% equity position in Grupo Modelo, MexicoÃ¢â¬â¢s largest brewer and producer of the Corona brand. AB InBev plans to expand in China where volume growth is 2-3% and implement a focus brand at mid to high teens. AB InBev plans to use a Concentration Week Initiative to promote their Budweiser brand to new and existing clientele. These promotions will be enhanced by new TV ads aimed at growing their premium and super premium brands in the healthy lifestyle community. Upon consolidation with InBev, the company employed a series of asset disposals, which included divesting during 2009 its 27% equity position in Tsingtao, the largest brewer in China and producer of the Tsingtao brand.Asset disposal and divesting of less profitable business segments is in line with AB InBevÃ¢â¬â¢s goal to provide the best possible returns on shareholder equity (Johnson). The following, based on the AB InBevÃ¢â¬â¢s annual report information, is an explanation of the forecasted increase in market share percentage per region: North America: 4. 0% The brands Budweiser and Bud Light, with strong marketing efforts, have continued to gain market share and report good results, with Bud Light consisting of 5% of the Canadian beer market in Q310. Latin America North: 25. 5% This area will continue to reap rewards from anticipated industry performance improvement. Economic conditions are anticipated to continue to improve as AB InBev rolls out Budweiser and Budweiser Brew NÃ ° 66 into the Brazilian market in 2011.AB InBev has been highly successful in market introductions, a s shown by the innovations introduced over the last three years which alone now account for more than 10% of the Brazilian beer market. Latin America South: 8. 7% AB InBev heavily invested in Focus Brand promotion in 2009, particularly during the FIFA World Cup, the effects of which are expected to be felt in 2011 in sales volume increases in Stella Artois and Quilmes. Beer volumes in Argentina have been recovering from weak industry performance in 2009, fueled in large part by premium brand sales, which continued to grow substantially throughout 2009 as well in 2010. Western Europe: 2. 9%Sales in this segment are anticipated to follow a trend of flat sales. The beer industry in Western Europe is in decline, though AB InBev remains a market leader. Belgium sales volume saw a 2. 2% decline in 3Q10 due to abnormally poor weather conditions. As long as weather conditions are somewhat normal in 2011, volume should increase. Budweiser Brew NÃ ° 66 and Stella Artois were launched in Augu st and September 2010, respectively in the United Kingdom. Central & Eastern Europe: 33. 8% The Russian government has been promoting the consumption of beer in order to reduce that of vodka. The combined efforts of AB InBev and the government will increase sales in 2011.In 3Q10, awareness for Bud was built through a range of media initiatives, including television, social media, and out-of-home ads, resulting in strong volume performance, confirming the brandÃ¢â¬â¢s potential in Russia. Asia Pacific: 21. 9% Planned national marketing campaigns, in addition to the recent launch of Budweiser Lime, will boost market share in the rapidly expanding China beer market. The Focus Brand portfolio volumes in the area increased 17. 5% in 3Q10 as a result of these campaigns, and AB InBev will continue to invest in the Focus Brand campaigns. While the above market share increases for 2011 can be forecasted due to industry analysis based on what has occurred in the past year, major growth rate increases cannot be sustained from year to year.Projections for the remaining two years have been reached through calculating the average growth rate typical for the beer industry and AB BevÃ¢â¬â¢s unique performance, which is roughly 12. 4% of the previous yearsÃ¢â¬â¢ growth performance. As 2011 unfolds, recalculations will need to be made incorporating current events and economic conditions. [pic] Internal Business Perspective: In the third part of the Balanced Scorecard, the question surrounding business processes is handled by answering the following: In what business processes must we be the best in order to satisfy our customers? Goals should be formulated for innovation, customer management, operational processes and integration into the environment.AB InBev has credited its efficiency with effective communication with their retailers. The strategic plans were shared with retailers to include them in the process from beginning to end. The products and services are doing very well at AB InBev. The valuable tool of Reco has resulted in fast communication to its retailers and ensuring that its alcoholic beverages get stocked immediately to satisfy its clientele. Anheuser-Bush fosters an environment of growth and innovation. This has resulted in great success to the company. Efficiency through its distribution, sales, and marketing abilities has helped Anheuser-Busch become very successful. DistributionAnheuser-Busch is very team oriented environment that encourages innovation and expansion. The costs of products are closely monitored and are able to be minimized through communication. A prime example is the successful introduction of Bud Light Lime. Ã¢â¬Å"Our goal is to provide our retailers with the products and packaging that best appeal to their shoppers,Ã¢â¬ said Bill Laufer, vice president, grocery sales for Anheuser-Busch. Ã¢â¬Å"With the introduction of Bud Light Lime, we worked with retailers well in advance of the launch to help them sell the product by providing them with the strategy behind the brand, packaging options, target audience, sales expectations, recommended shelf placement and marketing plans. The communication between AB InBev and its retailers is a huge success. AnhesuerÃ¢â¬â¢s business strategy is to closely monitor its products all the way to the finish line while providing information to its retailers on the products details. Bill Laufer points out, Ã¢â¬Å"Because we worked closely with retailers to support the launch of this product, we have been able to obtain a 0. 9 share in supermarkets for a product that was released at the end of AugustÃ¢â¬ (IRI Supermarket Data, week ending Oct. 19). Communication is very vital to the growth and continued success of AB InBev. The constant feedback has resulted in positive growth of its new products such as Bud Light lime.The distribution has varied for Anheuser-Busch. For the years of 2008 the distribution was 6. 4%, 7% for 2009, and 8% for 2010 (www. a nheuser-busch. com). The distribution costs have gone up due to the prices in materials. Cost of Sales Anheuser-Bush usesÃ the accounting method of last in, first out method in its inventories. According to AnheuserÃ¢â¬â¢s Web site, Ã¢â¬Å"Inventories are valued at the lower of cost or market. The company uses the last-in, first-out method (LIFO) valuation approach to determine cost primarily for domestic production inventories, and uses average cost valuation primarily for international production and retail merchandise inventories. The costs are calculated differently for domestic inventories as well as international inventories. Ã¢â¬Å"LIFO was used for approximately 71% of total inventories at December 31, 2004, and 76% of inventories at December 31, 2003. Average cost was used for the remainderÃ¢â¬ (Anheuser-Busch). This method has proved to be quite effective at handling the companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ finances. The cost of sales has defiantly fluctuated looking at the annual rep orts of 2008-2010. The costs of sales are for 2008 are 41. 1%, 46% cost of sales for 2009, and 44% cost of sales for 2010. Sales and Marketing The tool that has enabled Anheuser-Busch to become very efficient and productive with its retailers is called Reco.According to AB InBevÃ¢â¬â¢s Web site, Ã¢â¬Å"Anheuser-Busch was recognized for its ability to develop tools to enhance the beverage business of retail customers. In selecting Anheuser-Busch, Progressive Grocer highlighted Reco, a tool the company designed to enhance its planogram management tool and improve feedback to chain customers about retailer compliance of their plans. The system has helped retailers reduce their out-of-stocks and helps to ensure they stock a consistent mix of products to meet the unique needs of their consumers. Ã¢â¬ The tool Reco that AB InBev created has enabled the company to put its different types of alcoholic beverages on the shelves and keep them in stocked.The program has been very successfu l in providing communication about the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s plans to its retailers. The feedback from the retailers is critical to the success of the business partnership. Reco has proved to be a very productive tool for keeping items in stock and meeting the demands of its thirsty consumers. This has definitely helped in the sales and marketing department. Sales and marketing for the years of 2007 is 14. 8%, 2008 is 14. 9%, 2009 1is 4%, and 2010 is13%. There has been 1% percent of a dip. (Anheuser-Busch). The Learning & Growth Perspective: The next question to be answered is how can AB foster change and growth potentials in order to achieve business goals?For AB to grow and learn they need to harness their intangible assets such as technology, human capital and the potential of ABÃ¢â¬â¢s corporate culture. Since 1852 Budweiser has invested in their human and technological as well as additional financial resources to build a strong company. At AB InBevÃ¢â¬â¢s 2007 Green Week Doug Mu hleman, group vice president of Brewing Operations and Technology, announced Ã¢â¬Å"AB has been involved in conservation, education, research and preservation efforts for more than 100 yearsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Employees HelpÃ¢â¬ ¦). The ability to foster change and growth comes from within; AB InBev has continually evolved despite being within the mature industry of beer. One of ABÃ¢â¬â¢s aims is to become the Ã¢â¬Å"Best Beer Company in a Better World. To achieve this AB must use innovation, creativity, brilliance, employee job level satisfaction, and corporate citizenship to excel within their industry. ABÃ¢â¬â¢s Technological Tools The process of making beer has not changed much over the last hundred years, but AB continues to find other means of innovation. A great deal of innovation has been achieved through conservation and by AB setting an example of how a large corporation can improve its processes to make a positive impact on their surroundings. AB has become a technologic al leader by continuously exploring new emerging technology to improve efficiencies and conserve natural resources. In 2009 AB US breweries recycled 99. percent of solid waste by reducing and reusing almost all materials generated during the brewing and packaging of their beers. AB uses Bio-Energy Recovery systems (BERS) to convert brewery wastewater into renewable fuel, providing 8% of their US operation fuel needs (Employees HelpÃ¢â¬ ¦). Water is a main ingredient in beer, so water conservation is crucial to sustain this vital ingredient in ABÃ¢â¬â¢s brewing and agricultural processes. Since 2000 ABÃ¢â¬â¢s US breweries have reduced their water use by almost 37% believing, Ã¢â¬Å"you need great water to make great beerÃ¢â¬ . Since 2005 AB/In-bev have been actively working on reducing the amount of energy needed to create a liter of beer and at the same reducing the amount of CO2 emissions.Program like Voyager Plant Optimization (VPO) have created a standardized way to operat e breweries and continuously improve performance. Per their website (www. ab-inbev. com) Ã¢â¬Å"The implementation of VPO has brought measurable process achievements, including an increase in brewing capacity; an improvement in packaging efficiency, a reduction in changeover times, and improved energy useÃ¢â¬ (AB-InBev). AB uses a Ã¢â¬Å"healthy innovation pipelineÃ¢â¬ to continuously improve their technological know-how. ABÃ¢â¬â¢s Employees With approximately 114,000 people working across 23 countries AB knows employees are a Ã¢â¬Å"key ingredientÃ¢â¬ in their corporation (Anheuser-Busch).They seek employee input by promoting an atmosphere where ideas are valued and accepted. One of ABÃ¢â¬â¢s core values is Ã¢â¬Å"building a high performing and diverse workforce,Ã¢â¬ this may be why employees are known to stay for years and even decades. AB understands that the talent of people that they hire and the teams they organize reflect on the company as a whole and provide a truly sustainable competitive advantage. Anheuser-Bush Training and development group (ABTDG) support their employees at every stage of their careers by providing extensive training and education. One of their tools is The Global Management Trainee Program (GMT) to recruit new talent.This 10 month program provides a systematic overview of AB /InBev Corporation to develop insight into every aspect of the business. The program includes local and global business exposure where upon completion GMT trainees are assigned an entry-level management job. To help their people succeed they provide clear expectations to ensure commitment and motivation with good leadership. The company aims to Ã¢â¬Å"get the right people into the right roles at the right timeÃ¢â¬ (AB-InBev). Welcoming people with vision, commitment and drive; celebrating diversity and having a no tolerance policy toward discrimination. CEO Carlos Brito CEO of AB InBev summarizes the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s view with a statement d irected towards their employees, ItÃ¢â¬â¢s up to you to achieve your own success, but we provide the framework for you to unleash your full potential. Together, we can fulfill our dream to be the best beer company in a better world. Ã¢â¬ ABÃ¢â¬â¢s corporate culture AB is a global citizen; meaning how the rest of the world perceives its actions is a message to all of its shareholders. ABÃ¢â¬â¢s more than $450 million in charitable donations since 1997 demonstrates that they are interested in more than just the bottom line. The Anheuser-Busch FoundationÃ¢â¬â¢s first philanthropic effort was first seen in 1906 to support the San Francisco earthquake. They continue their support today by donating water following natural and other disasters.AB also supports EmployeeÃ¢â¬â¢s commitment to non-profits through gift matching and employee volunteer grant programs. The foundationÃ¢â¬â¢s focus has been on education, economic development and environmental conservation primarily whe re the company is located and where employees work and live. Selling four of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s top selling beers, AB recognizes their obligation to promote responsible drinking with ads such as Ã¢â¬Å"Budweiser Means ModerationÃ¢â¬ dating back to the early 1900s (Anheuser-Busch). They have invested more than $830 million in national campaigns to prevent underage drinking and drunk driving. AB is well aware that it is their culture that defines the company giving them a competitive advantage that cannot be duplicated.ItÃ¢â¬â¢s about how a dream can motivate people to work in the same direction and how a good cultural fit results in improved performance. This is the first of ten principles AB uses to reflect the mission of the company. AB emphasizes that they are a company of Owners because Ã¢â¬Å"Owners take results personalÃ¢â¬ (Dream, peopleÃ¢â¬ ¦). With clear measures of accountably managers are expected to lead by example showing employees that Ã¢â¬Å"we do what we say. Ã¢â¬ AB has a zero-complacency policy, recognizing a job well done, but always looking for the next challenge to stretch their expertise. Costs are managed tightly to allow needed finances to support growth. By working as a lean company AB can shift money to new products for consumers.This collection of beliefs has a powerful positive influence on employees helping the company reach their strategic goals. Balanced Scorecard Overview: Anheuser-Busch InBev continues to use all of their resources, not just financial, to align their business activities. Working to improve communications, monitor performance processes, technology, and innovation while investing in relationships with customers, suppliers, and employees. They refuse to take short cuts and are constantly seeking bigger and better ways to improve their products and services. In 2010 Patrick OÃ¢â¬â¢Riodan, Global Director of Innovation at AB InBev, spoke about lessons for innovators.His highlights summarized the basic s trategy of using tangible and intangible assets to achieve business objectives. This in-turn helps the company create a balance scorecard. First, explain objectives in simple terms, this makes goals clear and measurable. Second, have defined strategies, AB uses renovations to strengthen existing products and innovations for developing new ones. Third, have clearly defined processes, AB uses both front-end and back-end process for defining business growth strategies. Finally, draw from non-obvious places, looking to business outside of the beverage industry for insight helps AB Inbev realize their full potential (Anthony, Scott). Anheuser-Busch InBev Balanced Scorecard | |Perspectives |Objectives |Measurements |Targets |Initiatives | | | |Financial |Profitability |Return on equity | | | |Domestic Growth | | |Revenue Growth |% Change in revenue | | | |International Growth | | |Manage Debt |Net debt to normalized EBIT ratio |2. 6 |2. 3 |2. 0 |Acquisitions | | | | | | | | | |Customer | Responsive Supply |On time delivery |99. 3% |99. % |100% |Transportation Advantage | | | | | | | | | | |Leading in Customer Loyalty |Customer satisfaction rating |83 |84 |85 |Fresh Ideas Initiative | | | | | | | | | | |Market Share |% of Market Share Growth |4. 0% |4. 96% |5. 58% |Concentration Week | | | |North America |25. 5% |28. 66% |32. 1% | | | | |Latin America North |8. 7% |9. 78% |10. 99% | | | | |Latin America South |2. 9% |3. 26% |3. 66% | | | | |Western Europe |33. 8% |37. 99% |42. 7% | | | | |Central and Eastern Europe |21. 9% |24. 62% |27. 7% |Focus Brand Campaign | | | |Asia Pacific | | | | | |Internal |Manufacturing Excellence |% Cost of Sales |41. 1% |46% |44% |Reco | | | | | | | | | | |Optimal Cost |% Of Distribution |6. % |7% |8% |Last In, First Out Method | | |Fast Delivery | | | | | | | | |% Of Sales& Marketing |14. 9% |14% |13% |Average Cost Valuation | |Learning |Global Citizenship |Philanthropic Donations | | | |Anheuser-Bush Foundation | |And | | | | | | | |Growing |Environmental Stewardship |Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions by 5% from | |-5% |Target Met |Reduce 13% by 2013 | | |2005-2010 | | | | | | | | | | |2. 1% | | | |InBev Worldwide Volume |% Organic Growth by Total Volume |0% |-. 7% |-3. 0% |Voyager Plant Optimization | | | |North America |3. 1% |-2. 0% |10. % | | | | |Latin America North |1. 0% |8. 8% |3. 9% | | | | |Latin America South |10. 4% |-3. 8% |-1. 6% | | | | |Western Europe |-4. 8% |-4. 9% |-. 9% |The Global Management Trainee program | | | |Central and Eastern Europe |-6. 1% |-10. 8% |5. % | | | | |Asia Pacific |0. 1% |-2. 0% | | | Works Cited Ã¢â¬Å"A Mixed Forecast for BeerÃ¢â¬ . Modern Brewery Age: the business magazine for the beer industry. 11 February 2011. ; http://www. breweryage. com/industry/; Anheuser-Busch. ; http://www. anheuser-busch. com/Company. html;. Anheuser-Bush Annual Reports . Anheuser-Busch InBev. Anheuser-Busch InBev. Ã¢â¬Å"Dream, People, Culture 10 principlesÃ¢â¬ Anthony, Scott. Four Innovation Lessons from Anheuser Bush,Ã¢â¬ The Street. 10 February 2010. Boselovic, Len. Sophisticated Beer DrinkerÃ¢â¬ . Post-gazette. com: Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. 6 August 2006. 19 February 2011. ; http://www. post-gazette. com/pg/06218/711317-28. stm;. C. Gregory John and Michael Willis, Ã¢â¬Å"Supply Chain Re-engineering at Anheuser-Busch,Ã¢â¬ Supply Chain Management Review, pp. 29-35. Ã¢â¬Å"Employees Help Power Anheuser-Busch's Green WeekÃ¢â¬ St. Louis Front Page. 22 April 2007. Johnson, Jennifer. Ã¢â¬Å"Ahold, Barclays, Carrefour, EDF, Safran, VastNed: European Equity PreviewÃ¢â¬ . February 27, 2011. . The American Customer Satisfaction Index. October 2010 Press Release. . Woolridge, J. Randall and Gray, Gary. Ã¢â¬Å"Applied Principles of Finance,Ã¢â¬ (2006). .
Monday, July 29, 2019
Drugs on University Campus - Coursework Example The students are involved in consuming drugs and alcohol usually is more likely to get C grade GPAs. It is a major factor of dropping out of students. One third of young people who died in accidents are drunk. Approximately half of the young people from age 16 to 24 tried drugs at least one time. Use of alcohol, ecstasy, cocaine and cannabis is drastically increasing on campuses and it can lead to morally corrupt society, it started when students see their friends taking drugs and they want to try it too and they get addicted. But the ratio of students who are taking drugs is low as it may be thought the ratio is higher, According to study of Drug culture on UK Campuses 45% of students not at all make an effort to take any form of illegal drugs, nevertheless 90% of students believed that their friends involved in consuming drugs (Friedberg, 2012). According to the survey report 77% students take cannabis, 39% ecstasy and 24% cocaine on campuses. Students are cautious while taking LSD as 61% of students never tried this. One research conducted online and questioned 1401 students, just 3% of the students said they never want to tried cannabis, now you can assume how radically use of this type of drugs increasing. (Friedberg, 2012) Drugs are illegal and by consuming it students get a risk of affecting their mental and physical health, these drugs make young people lead to unprotected sex and it cause STDs and unplanned pregnancy. The legal penalties are severe as if found guilty, possession of A class drugs can lead to 7 years of prison and if found guilty. As a result, then students waste their years to attend school. Most of the students nearly more than half percent of students when arrived at university they already have know how of drugs and they had to used them regularly before arriving at university. A very big numbers of students tried drugs by the age of 16. Many of the students smoke cigarettes and some of them tried
Sunday, July 28, 2019
4 - Essay Example The reading reminded Muslims that their religion was revealed by God through the prophet Muhammad. The five pillars of Islam, which are ritual duties that that must be observed by all Muslims, were also mentioned and these pillars are: confessing their faith, observing the five daily prayers, paying alms to the needy, fasting during the month of Ramadan and pilgrimage or hajj to Mecca ((Ellwood & McGraw 374). The authors also explained the importance of the hajj to Muslims and the significance of the mosque as the main place of worship to the Muslims. Several religious rites that are also practiced by Muslims were also mentioned in the book. The spread of Islam from the Middle East to North Africa were also discussed in the reading (Ellwood & McGraw). The two largest branches of Islam, Sunni Islam and the ShiÃ¢â¬â¢a Islam were also mentioned in the reading. The Shiites believed that the descendants of Ali, (MuhammadÃ¢â¬â¢s son-in-law) were divinely ordained by God and they are called Imams. On the other hand, the Sunnis believed that it was MuhammadÃ¢â¬â¢s intention for the Muslims to choose a successor amongst themselves by agreement and they are called caliphs. The difference between the Sunni and ShiÃ¢â¬â¢a Islam were made clear in the reading. Islamic mysticism was also explained in the reading and the tensions that it had with mainstream Islam. Islamic mysticism was explained as a factor that has deepened the life of Muslims. The role of Islam in politics was also explained in the reading in the history of Islam and their role in modern politics, especially in the region of the Middle East. The concept of jihad, a Ã¢â¬Ëholy warÃ¢â¬â¢ was also explained in the reading as Muslims actually see it as a means of converting Non-Muslims and drawing their hearts to God. The reading actually relate to my experience in the sense that, it expands my knowledge on the little understanding I have about Islam. The day to day practices of Muslims that were highlighted in the reading
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Entry Strategy - Essay Example The economic and political factors are inter-related and it becomes difficult to identify only the economic or only the political factors separately (Altinay, 2005). The micro-environment is the internal environment which comprises of the corporate goals and objectives, the corporate strengths and weaknesses and the service factors. In addition to these, the location is equally important (Ekeledo & Sivakumar, 1998). Zhao and Decker (2004) contend that size of the firm, the technology transfer if required, the cultural distance, the market size, risks and uncertainties, sectoral barriers, and the international experience also influence the entry strategy. Taking these factors into account, the market entry strategy for ABC in India and Ireland would be recommended. Ã While market entry is generally through exports, licensing, joint venture or opening of wholly owned subsidiaries, in the hospitality sector the mode of entry is different. In this sector direct ownership or any form of equity partnership is not preferred in countries with high economic or political risks, and of the level of economic development is low (Altinay, 2005). If the risks are high entry modes with low resource commitment is preferred. Franchising and management contracts are the most preferred modes of entry in the hotel sector in international expansion. In both these formats capital-intensive assets and knowledge-based assets can be separated.Ã Service firms may enter foreign markets using a variety of modes but control is the most vital factor.
Friday, July 26, 2019
Assignment on Teaching and learning practice - Essay Example Boud and Hawke (2003) underlines that it is more important to make the emphasis on the assessment of outcomes and immediate competence, focuses learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ attention on the present task and how they might address it, that is, in a way that will satisfy assessors (cited Chappell, 2003). Professional judgment is perhaps the most far-reaching and complex parameter of all. In order to check out the performance of a student, a teacher needs to understand precisely how decisions are made. Every educator and teacher should be responsible for his professional judgment she/he makes concerning students performance and their level of personal development. In this case, professional judgment is a very important activity which helps a teacher to assess a student and determine competency of a student. Professional judgment in teaching is a complex activity which requires careful analysis and evaluation of studentÃ¢â¬â¢s achievements. The main problem is that it is impossible to teach educators how to make the right judgment in all the cases they are faced with, because every student is a unique individuality and personally influenced by social factors. For this reason, professional teachers learn how to make professional judgments on the job. Boud & Hawke create a concept Ã¢â ¬Å"learning-how-to-learnÃ¢â¬ They explain that Ã¢â¬Å"currently in an outcomes-based framework, this capacity is not developed. Instead, the emphasis on the assessment of outcomes and immediate competence, focuses learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ attention on the present task and how they might address it, that is, in a way that will satisfy assessorsÃ¢â¬ (Chappell 2003). On the other hand, in order to improve their professional judgments, the educators record their comments which may include an evaluation of what they have done and/or what they are working towards. Gradually the comments become more in depth in some years of teaching practice and young teachers are able to make detailed and perceptive professional
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Fashion Buying - Essay Example The essay "Fashion Buying" concerns the buying process in the fashion industry. Consumer buying process involves need recognition, information search, evaluation of the alternatives and deciding upon one of the alternatives and making the purchase decision. If we further explain the process between evaluation of alternatives and purchase decision we will find that once the customer evaluates the alternatives, he makes a purchase intention, this intention can influenced by the attitudes of others like family, peers and reference groups or from unanticipated events like lower income than expected, illness etc. taking all these aspects in consideration the consumer takes his decision. Once the product is purchased the consumer will form his opinion regarding the product and services provided by the company in the post purchase period. Organizational buying behaviour. According to Elliot organizational buying behaviour is the buying behaviour of organizations that buy goods and services for use in the production of other products and services, for using the products in operational non core operation like photocopier for office management or for the purpose of reselling or renting them to others at a profit. Organizational Decision Making Units. Organizational buying decisions are most likely to be made by a committee or group of people than wholly by an individual. In an organization purchase 'decision making unit' there are various centre of powers, which influences and finally guides the decision-making.
The recuitment process from an employers perspective - Essay Example A well-written resume presents the impression that the candidate is organized and has good communication skills -which is the backbone of all organizations today. It is important to remember that as an employee you are selling yourself to the employer and his organization. An employee must be thought in terms of a brand or a product that must stress his benefits and explain why the organization should hire him. Even before organizations open up the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s CV, they have a look at the cover letter which precedes the CV. The purpose of a CV is to create interest in the employer to contact the candidate for an interview whereas the cover letter creates interest in the employer to read the candidateÃ¢â¬â¢s CV (Bovee et al., 2008). It is a common mistake to address the employer properly by using a gender-based phrase Ã¢â¬ËDear SirÃ¢â¬â¢ (Bovee et al., 2008). Using phrases such as Ã¢â¬ËDear HR managerÃ¢â¬â¢ denote professionalism and anti-discriminatory behavior in toda yÃ¢â¬â¢s corporate world (Bovee et al., 2008). Likewise, it is common to set the objective of a cover letter as far too general. It ought to be specific to the particular industry that the candidate is applying in which demonstrates his/her skills of the industryÃ¢â¬â¢s processes or procedures. Yet another important issue is that of the use of a specific salary (e.g. $2,000) rather than a broad range (Hinds, 2005). Furthermore, it is crucial to recognize the fact that employers do not have a lot of time to read documents coming from a large pool of applicants. Hence, it is a malpractice to write a lengthy cover letter (that exceeding two pages). Ideally, the most effective cover letters span only a page (Brewer, 2010). Using internet jargon and not properly checking the cover letter for spelling and grammar is another common oversight (Bovee et al., 2008). This creates the impression of a rather slack personality of the applicant to the organization. As far as the resume is conc erned, it is crucial that it displays a Ã¢â¬Å"you-attitudeÃ¢â¬ (Bovee et al., 2008). This is extremely important in all persuasive messages including the CV. It is useful to research into the background of the company and its operations because employers are constantly looking on how the employee can relate himself/herself to the company (Bovee et al., 2008). CVs must not be too compelling; the language that is used must not depict that the candidate is expecting immediate response of being accepted or rejected by the company. This expectation is erroneous; a good CV does not result in being accepted. It is the Ã¢â¬Å"gatewayÃ¢â¬ to being accepted (Bovee et al., 2008). Furthermore, candidates often spend several hours detailing their experiences and interests believing that their CV will be read thoroughly. However, the truth is that most CVÃ¢â¬â¢s are read by the computer and screened on the basis of certain keywords; it is important to embody those Ã¢â¬Å"keywordsÃ¢â¬ . Also, the most important issue that organizations report is the direct use of the word Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬ ; CVs must always be presented in terms of what is known as the silent Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬ (Curtis & Simons, 2004). There are several formats for a CV at the disposal of the candidate; a chronological, functional or combination format (Appendix 1 and 2). The chronological format is most preferred by employers as it makes it easier for the employer to extract information. It is discovered that, all too often, candidates often fail to produce effective CVs due to the
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
CLA L9 - Essay Example However, the stage in girls may be referred to as the Electra complex where girls also show the same erotic desires to their fathers. Feud argued that stage typically came to an end when the child when the child identified with the parent of similar sex and suppressed its sexual drives. In case the previous relations with the parents were reasonably affectionate and nontraumatic. Moreover, in case the parental insolences were neither exceptionally exorbitant nor extremely stimulating, the stage is passed through amicably (Young, 2001). However, in case there is trauma, infertile neurosis that is a significant indication of same reactions throughout the childÃ¢â¬â¢s adult life. The sense of right and wrong, the moral factor that controls the conscious adult mind, also originates in the same stage in life. Freud partook the reactions against the Oedipus complex the utmost significant social attainments of the human mind. It clearly relates to the original classical myth where Oedipus murders his father unwittingly and then takes possession the mother. Just like in the case there is a desire between the male Oedipus with the mother. That confers to the concepts of the Oedipus complex. Besides that, his killing of the father also demonstrates the hatred feeling that exists between the father and the boy. However, the argument may be disputed depending on the age of the boy since Oedipus complex occurs at the ages of four and five. The stage is very important since it acts as an imperative stage for the development of the sexual identity to these children. The child comes to realize the difference between the mother and the father (Young, 2001). At that stage the child acquires his or her gender. They gain self-identity in the society and try to discover more of him. The child tries to acknowledge that he is a boy and the erotic desires compel him to get attracted to the opposite sex. The sex
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Criminal justice - Essay Example Nevertheless, unexpectedly, every single one of these studies was carried out within the period of the Miranda resolution, and none have been repeated afterward. Hence, the entire literature on the impact of the Miranda Act on individuals and law enforcement personnel thus far originates from studies that were carried out during the early years of Miranda (Cassell & Fowles, 1998). Because the more enduring effect of a court resolution is more relevant to academics than its immediate impacts, as expressed by Leo (1996), it is astonishing that no academic has investigated the effect of the Miranda Act in almost three decades. The Miranda Act has been the most contentious and the most condemned case of the Supreme Court in the United States criminal justice (Fridell, 2006). Even though nobody has methodically studied the continuing impacts of Miranda on collective awareness, court cases, or law enforcement methods and behavior, the subject matter of MirandaÃ¢â¬â¢s effect is still a ro ot of contention among academics and practitioners (Leo, 1996). Despite the unending debate between liberal and conservative scholars of the Miranda Act, law enforcement personnel have effectively adjusted to the provision of Miranda of Ã¢â¬Ëpre-interrogation constitutional warningsÃ¢â¬â¢ (Leo, 1996, 628) in recent years.
Monday, July 22, 2019
Dolphins as Persons Essay Dolphins are toothed sea mammals which closely resemble whales. There are over forty kinds of dolphins in the world and are said to be friendly to humans unlike many marine creatures. They are the most intelligent of all sea creatures and the trained ones are able to understand or decode human messages. There are cases where lost travelers have been guided by dolphins and also in other instances where some drowning victims have been saved by them. Many people have argued that dolphins should be considered as persons something that has elicited a lot of mixed reactions with some backing this argument while others strongly refute it. This paper is going to take a stand and support the claim that dolphins should be considered as persons. The first incident that left many questioning themselves as to whether dolphins should be treated as animals or persons was when two bottle-nosed dolphins from the University of Hawaiis Marine Biology department meant for experimentation were released back to the waters by La Vasseur who from a human perspective considered capturing of dolphins and keeping them in an isolated place from the rest, rationing their food and denying them the environmental conditions they enjoyed in the sea considered it as mistreatment and unethical. His argument was that these animals should be accorded some rights so as to protect them from being mistreated and he even went to an extent of asking if the Thirteen Amendment human rights could be extended to them. The ruling in this case to some extent closed the doors for dolphins to be accorded the rights they deserve by refusing the case to take a moral perspective when judge Doi termed it as pure theft (Miller and Williams, 1983; 365). There are many facts about dolphin that go unexplored or if this is not the case, they are simply ignored. If these facts are given the attention they deserve then one would be in a better position to comprehend why these animals should be treated as persons. One thing that should be known is that just like human beings, dolphins have a sense of humor. According to Blackstock (2003), dolphins try to joke by surprising unsuspecting pelicans by grabbing some feathers from its tail or inching stealthily to unsuspecting fish and grab its tail. In other cases, dolphins would be seen tricking some turtles where it would make it roll a number of times. Still in another incident, a dolphin was seen trying to bait a fish only to snatch the bait before it could be eaten thereby leaving the fish puzzled. This is indicative of possession of high intelligence as it only human beings and other primates that possess a sense of humor. Dolphins like human beings have a way of communicating. Their bodies are designed in such a manner such that they produce whistles and clicks as they swim using their nasal passages. This communication keeps them away from any danger for example, they whistle as they swim in the sea to ensure they are together. Apart from this, they maintain body contact by swimming close to one another where they can rub and hit each other with their pectoral fins. They also use their pectoral fins to greet each other just like humans use their hands and shoulders to hug one another. This is said to happen when two different dolphins come together and touch each other with their pectoral fins something that is interpreted to mean greetings (Robins Island. org. 2009). To detect whether there are dangers ahead, dolphins send Ã¢â¬ËclicksÃ¢â¬â¢ into the water which if they hit a solid object such as rocks, boats, logs and other sea animals are rebuffed. By using their complex means of detecting the echo, they estimate the distance at which these objects could be located depending on the strength of the echo. Also dolphins are capable of producing whistles with different emotional tones that send specific emotional messages. A study that was done shown that when this sound was produced, other dolphins responded and behaved in a particular way. Just like a human mind which through experience acquires or gains knowledge, dolphins too can acquire knowledge. Studies that were done shown that trained dolphins have been able to mimic certain human sounds or perform some spectacular tricks that one would imagine could only be done by a human being like somersaulting in water. Having realized the level of intelligence these animals possess, the United States navy had at one time thought of training them so that they would help them in their undersea operations but it was later realized that they if they were trained, they would interfere with nuclear submarine operations. The truth is that if trained these animals are able to survey the security of the area and give the feedback before any naval operation is conducted just like humans do. The only difference between these animals is that it is their nature to stay in water and thus they are better adapted to swimming in the sea than human beings. They are able to relate well with human beings and because they are able to communicate and work with human beings in various marine operations, they should be treated as a non-human person and not like animals as this show that they think and reason just like human beings. For example, according to the Science Daily (2003), the US navies used dolphins in 2003 to detect the bombs that might have been planted by Iraq troops in the sea channel where ships carrying hospital and other war materials would pass through. The only notable difference between humans and dolphins is that one is a sea mammal while the other is a primate and thus there would no good reason as to why these animals should not be protected and accorded the rights they deserve. Using its intelligence, bottle-nosed dolphin seems to understand the value of human life and that it is why it saves swimmers from being attacked by sharks. This is something that was attested by Howe who according to New Zealand Press went to swim with his daughter and was about to be attacked by a three meter shark before he was saved by a herd of dolphins who kept it at bay (Jones, 2004). This shows that just like how human beings protect their pets, dolphins also value humans and thus treat them as their best friends. This shows that their level of intelligence is close to that of humans and thus people should awaken to the role they play in their lives and treat them like other humans. Indeed, dolphins should be treated and categorized as persons. Their level of intelligence is much close to that of human beings and they seem to understand human beings as humans do and that is why they save swimmers who are at danger of being eaten by sharks. Dolphins in some cases have worked closely with humans for example during the transportation of hospital aid to Iraq where they were used in detecting bombs set in the sea by Iraq rogues soldiers. Most of the characteristics that dolphins possess are like those of human beings for example they have a way of communicating, system of danger detection, emotion appeal or aspect and they are social animals as they stay in herds or in pairs. For these reasons dolphinsÃ¢â¬â¢ rights should be treated and protected just like human rights are protected by the constitution. References: Blackstock, Regina. 2004, Dolphins and Man equals. Available at http://www. littletownmart. com/dolphins/ Jones, S. November 24, 2004. Dolphins save swimmers from shark. Retrieved from http://www. guardian. co. uk/science/2004/nov/24/internationalnews Miller, H. B. and Williams, W. H. 1983. Ethics and Animals. Humana Press. Robins Island. org. 2009. Facts and Information about Dolphins. Accessed from http://www. robins-island. org/dolphins_facts. php Science Daily. 3rd July, 2003. Men, Mammals, And Machines: Underwater Drone Works With Men And Dolphins. Accessed from http://www. sciencedaily. com/releases/2003/07/030701224407. htm
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Still Falls the Rain Analysis The central theme of this poem is centred around a hard topic: the bombing of London during War World II. Edith Sitwell presents a world in need of change. However, she deals with this theme from a Christian perspective. This viewpoint is portrayed in seven irregular stanzas and thirty five lines which are written in free-verse. This means that, despite being an organized piece of writing with a coherent rhyme, meter and rhythm, it does not follow traditional patterns and these effects are used irregularly. The four final words in stanza 1 are an example of this: Rain, loss, nails, and Cross. While the first and third form a half-rhyme, which is a common feature in free-verse poems, the second and fourth form a perfect rhyme. Contrarily, the four lines in stanza 3 end with the words Tomb, rain, brain and Cain, forming a perfect rhyme in the last three words, while the first one does not rhyme at all. Moreover, sometimes an internal rhyme can be detected in words such as Field and feet, both in line 11, following a pattern of assonance since they have the same vowel sounds. Most lines have different lengths and they lack an established pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables. Overall, both free verse and these latter features enable the author to express her feelings more vividly, so that these emotions will be easily transmitted to the reader. Finally, all these effects provide the poem with beauty, making it more attractive for this reader. The structure or line divisions also create units of meaning. The seven stanzas of this poem may represent the seven days of the week, symbolizing how the suffering of Christ still persists. In the same way, six of these seven stanzas begin with the same statement: Still Falls the Rain. This number six can refer to humankind, which was born in the sixth day of creation in accordance with Genesis 1. Furthermore, the fact that Sitwell uses this sentence so many times emphasizes the duration and severity of that moment, thus bringing us closer to her emotions. Moreover, the expression He bears in His heart all wounds (line 20) strategically appears in stanza 5. This number may refer to the five main wounds of Christ (two in his feet, two in his hands, and one in his side). Nevertheless, all these effects contrast with the last stanza, which is finished with a hopeful message: Still do I love, still shed my innocent light, my Blood for thee'. Sitwell uses these words as she wants to remi nd us that God loves us and He gave His life for us; she trusts in Gods ability and willingness to act in a chaotic world. Overall, this poem shows the pain in the world, but leaving a gap of hope at the end. Since Sitwell has such firm religious vocation, biblical allusions are widely present in this poem. In line 3, for example, Sitwell refers to the rain as follows: Blind as the nineteen hundred and forty nails. By naming those nails used upon Christs cross, she represents the year of writing of this poem as well as the years elapsed from Christs birth. Similarly, other expressions such as the Starved Man, which is repeated in lines 14 and 19, indicate the existence of the Messiah, the Savior. It emphasizes the fact that wars only bring about pain and sins which ordinary people could only stand through their hope that this starved man will help them. Moreover, Sitwell sets her poem in the Potters Field (line 8). Later described as the Field of Blood in line 11, it describes a piece of land obtained by Judas Iscariot after betraying Christ, which was and is actually still used as a war cemetery. This field makes us think about past relatives who fought in the war, creating empathy. Over all, these biblical allusions especially help Christians to relate the poem to themselves and understand the consequences of war. Finally, the transmission of such deep emotions and reflections also helps to conclude that the register used in this poem is as lyrical as it is religious. The language of poetry has the power to touch our emotions and affect our understanding of ourselves and the world. This means that language can make the reader perceive the world and the poem with a higher definiton or, on the contrary, with ambiguity, providing this poem with different meanings. Sitwell creates these effects through rhetorical features such as imagery and simile. Imagery is the most popular device in this poem. For example, the rain may be understood as normal rain as well as the raining down of bombs during the air raids. This effect is created through descriptive adjectives like dark and black in line 2, giving a somber mood to the poem, and blind in line 3, representing the blindness of those people in war who do not remember Christs suffering during His crucifixion. The rain may also symbolize the blood shed by Christs side, which is a symbol of redemption for all sinners. Sitwell confirms this fact in line 19: Still falls the Blood from the Starved Mans wounded Side. Christ shed His blood for everybody in the same way people are unified in their communities during times of bombing. Sitwell conveys that we all have a God to believe in, who will always help us without making any distinction between social classes. Thus, Sitwell makes a plea for clemency in line 15 by referring to a parable about Dives and Lazarus: Christ that each day, each night, nails there, have mercy of us, continuing in line 16 as follows: On Dives and on Lazarus. Dives represents the rich man who is unaware of the poor man, the beggar Lazarus. They may symbolize hell and heaven respectively. Several images of the poem produce feelings of suffering in regards to the war. Thereby, the hammer beat in line 7 could be understood as an image of something which strongly beats this poem, emphasizing its hardness. Other words such as Tomb in line 9 and that worm with the brow of Cain in line 12 also stress this suffering. The latter refers to the mark made in Cains brow after killing his brother Abel. Finally, Sitwell refers to the The wounds of the baited bear in line 23, describing the helplessness of an animal in captivity towards its keepers and, concurrently, symbolizing the suffering of all those people involved in the war. More rhetorical features are found in this poem, such as the use of the simile. As it has been explained before, the rain is constantly compared through adjectives which convey darkness and hopelessness in the world such as those in line 2: Dark as the world of man, black as our loss. Another feature is personification. This is demonstrated in lines 12 and 13, where Sitwell claims that the human brain Nurtures its greed. She provides the brain with the personal ability of nurturing itself. Finally, alliteration on the consonant s occurs in line 28: See, see where Christs blood streames in the firmament, representing the sound of that flowing blood. Overall, rhetorical features force the reader to engage with his or her imagination and invite him or her to live the experience of war. Sitwell integrates all the previous points in the poem by using the third person, since she is describing what she feels and sees: the rain and the war. However, she sometimes changes this by directly referring to God. This happens, for example, in the last stanza: Then sounds the voice of One who, like the heart of man, Was once a child who among beasts has lain- Still do I love, still shed my innocent light, my Blood for thee' The fact that she is referring to God is portrayed through her use of capital letters in some words, such as One. It is also present when thinking about the biblical parable of Jesus having been born in a stable among animals, as is explained in line 34. Hence, it may be understood that Sitwell is trying to represent Gods own words in the last line. Moreover, there is a change of person in line 27, where the author introduces her own words as follows: -O Ile leape up to my God: who pulles me doune-. This is the only time she uses the first person, and it is written between dashes. While the dashes usually appear as a stylistic device in the poem, this time they are used to introduce the authors own voice in that line. This change of person causes the reader to understand and feel the situation from the authors own perspective. Finally, special punctuation, such as enjambment, is used in order to beautify the poem. It appears between lines 11 and 12, as the pause does not coincide at the end of the sentence: In the field of Blood where the small hopes breed and the human brain Nurtures its greed, that worm with the brow of Cain This poem is a statement of the authors Catholicism, which is used to reflect the existing difficulties in the world, such as the connection between the bombs and the dead in the ground. In general, she deals with this theme from a hopeful point of view. In my opinion, this poem is magnificently written. Sitwell employs a fantastic use of vocabulary and literary devices which cause great tension when reading the poem. This also led to me being reminded of some ancestors who fought in the war whilst reading it. I liked how the poet smoothes the tension in the last stanza and gives us that encouraging and optimistic message. Sitwells poetry reflects his heroic stance to face the terrors of life with an unshakable conviction that faith and poetry will ultimately triumph.
Evaluating Customer Retention Methods used by Coca Cola A consumer is a person who spots a need or desire, and then looks for the best way to satisfy his or her need either by purchase or acquisition (Solomon et al, 2010). Consumer behaviour as defined by Solomon et al (2006) is the processes involved when individuals or groups select, purchase, use or dispose of products, services, ideas, or experiences to satisfy needs or desires. Customer retention is vital these days and organisations are looking for the best way to please and satisfy the interest of their consumers. According to Fill (2009), the understanding of the buyers behaviour makes marketing strategies and plan come out successful. The Coca-Cola Company is soft drink industry that has been able to build its brand loyalty with its consumers over its years of operation, despite the highly competitive market (Euromonitor, 2010). But this success would not have been realistic without understanding who the consumer is, what the consumer needs and how the consumer behaves. The Econo mic recession was a trying time for companies which led to the closures of some and loss for majority, the soft drink industry is not an exception and Coca- cola which falls under the soft drink industry will be analysed on how effective the management of their consumers was to in ensuring their survival in the recession. 1.1 A brief summary of The Coca- Cola operations The Coca-Cola Company (TCCC) is the largest manufacturer, distributor and marketer of non alcoholic beverage, concentrates and syrups in the world. Coca-cola has a portfolio of more than 3,300 beverages, from diet and regular sparkling beverages to still beverages such as 100 percent fruit juices and fruit drinks, waters, sports and energy drinks, teas and coffees, and milk-and soy-based beverages, which are now sold in more than 200 countries in the world. (Coca-cola, 2010). Coca- cola first got to Britain in the year 1900, after Charles Candler brought a jug of syrup along on a visit to England. Soon after, in the early 1920s, it went on sale at the London Coliseum and in Selfridges. Since then coca-cola Britain has come up with innovative soft drinks namely: Coca-cola; Diet Coke; Coca-cola zero; Sprite; Sprite zero; Fanta;Fanta Zero; 5 Alive; Schweppes; Schweppes zero; Powerade; Powerade zero; Kia ora; Kia ora(no added sugar); Dr. Pepper; Dr. Pepper zero; Lilt; Lilt Zero; Oasis; Oasis extra light; Glaceau vitamin water and Relentless. (Coca-cola, 2010) With about 4,650 employees, Coca-cola GB claims to have sold 228million cases in 2008. Pic. 1.1 The Coca-Cola Company Great Britain brands Available on this link- http://www.coca-cola.co.uk/brands/ 1.2 An overview of the soft drink industry in Great Britain Mintel (2010) stated that close to one-quarter of companies in the UK soft drinks market is growing at more than 10% per year. Some of the main players in the UK soft drink industry include Coca-cola, Pepsi cola UK, Tropical UK, Nestle UK etc to mention but a few. The British Soft Drinks Associations 2010 UK Soft Drinks Report found that the overall market grew by 1.7% in 2009, with total consumption reaching 14,140 million litres, at a retail value of Ã £13.224 billion (Mintel, 2010). The British Soft Drinks Assocaition (2010) stated that it was encouraging to see that the soft drinks market was holding up during the economic downturn. According to M intel (2010), for the second year running, Coca-cola topped interbrands best global brands table, placing it above its competitors in the soft drink industry. The coca-cola company has continued to focus on expanding its business through taking tactical places in niche soft drinks producers, by purchasing a stake in UK smoothie produce r, Innocent Drinks (Euromonitor, 2010). 1.3 The recession in United Kingdom Recessions occur during the down or contraction phase of the business cycle. The term business cycle refers to the familiar ups and downs of economic activity. (Pearce and Michael 2006). Furthermore, Pearce and Micheal (2006) opined that recessions cause significant declines in resources available to the firm because customers spend less, lenders lend less, and competitive rivalry increases. Initially, the behaviour of consumers changes during recessions. They have less money to spend and cut back personal spending in response to the overall decline in economic activity. Industrial and business customers may become disloyal, demand renegotiated contract terms, and alter purchase patterns. Also by Pride and Ferrell (1995), recession is a stage in the business cycle during which unemployment rises and total buying power declines, stifling both consumers and business peopless propensity to spend. The UK economy was growing faster than the average for the Euro zone throughout most of this decade. However, an abrupt slowdown began in 2008 and the economy entered a recession in the third quarter. According to Euromonitor (2010), real gross domestic profit fell by 4.9% in 2009, making this the UKs longest post-war recession. The UK has been harder hit than many countries because of its large financial sector. The fiscal position has deteriorated over the past several years. The deficit was pushed even higher as a result of the bailout of large banks. The number of unemployed also rose by 50% during the recession with 800,000 jobs being lost (Euromonitor, 2010). The recession led to business closures, job losses and a lack of employment opportunities in the UK (Athey, 2009). This first global recession in the new era of globalization, started in the US, spread to Europe, and eventually became global; its the worst economic crisis since the great depression. (Stiglitz and Joseph, 2 009). 1.4 The Coca-Cola Company and the recession TCCCs gross profit margin decreased to 64.2 percent in 2009 from 64.4 percent in 2008, primarily due to foreign currency fluctuations, adverse geographic mix as a result of expansion in their up and coming markets, current focus to steer better reasonable initiatives across different major markets and unfavourable channel and marketing mix in some certain markets. (Coca-Cola, 2010). Even though there was a slight decrease (0.2%) in their profit margin compared to the previous year, TCCC arguably performed well despite the economic downturn. The unit case volume in TCCC is one of the measures of the fundamental strength of the company because it helps to measure progress at their consumer level. In Europe, the sales volume of year ended 2009 versus year ended 2008 shows that the unit case volume in Europe decreased 1 percent, caused mainly by the ongoing hard macroeconomic situations in most part of Europe. These hard macroeconomic conditions influenced major markets and caused a decline in the unit case volume of 8 percent in South and Eastern Europe, 4 percent in Iberia and 2 percent in Germany. The volume declines in these markets were partially made up for by 6 percent unit case volume growth in France and 4 percent growth in Great Britain.(Coca-cola, 2010). Table 1.1- Financial result of The Coca-Cola Company Year Ended December 31, 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 (In millions except per share data) SUMMARY OF OPERATIONS Net operating revenues $ 30,990 $ 31,944 $ 28,857 $ 24,088 $ 23,104 Net income attributable to shareholders 6,824 5,807 5, 981 5, 080 5, 872 GROSS PROFIT 19,902 20,570 18,451 GROSS PROFIT MARGIN 64.2% 64.4% 63.9% PER SHARE DATA Basic net income $ 2.95 $ 2.51 $ 2.59 $ 2.16 $ 2.04 Diluted net income 2.93 2.49 2.57 2.16 2.04 Cash dividends 1.64 1.52 1.36 1.24 1.12 BALANCE SHEET DATA Total assets $ 48,671 $ 40,519 $ 43,269 $ 29,963 $ 29,427 Long-term debt 5,059 2,781 3,277 1,314 1,154 1.5 Scope of Study The interest of this study lies mainly with The Coca-cola Company, focusing on Coca-cola Great Britain as the scope of study. This study also examines the level at which the recession affected the sales in coca-cola and the consumers attitude towards the purchase of coca-cola. CHAPTER TWO 2.0 Key Consumer Behaviour Aspects Three key consumer aspects have been carefully selected from Jiang (2010) as explained in the Consumer Behaviour Lectures; the following aspect of the consumer behaviour may have influenced the continuous purchase of coca-cola products despite the economic downturn- the buying process, Attitude formation and Motivation. 2.1 The Buying process A buying decision making process is the selection of an option from two or more alternative choices (Jiang, 2010). Coca-colas consumers can be explained in Consumer as a Problem Solver (Habitual Decision Maker). A habitual decision maker makes choices that are characterised by an impulse made with little effort and without conscious control (Solomon et al, 2006). Coca-colas brands are low involvement products and so require little information search. Most decisions made by people who consume coca-cola are with little or no conscious effort. Coca-cola consumers purchase Coke for example based on a habit that has been formed over time. Also the Evaluation of alternatives can be used to explain the brands resistance to the recession, much of the consumers effort that goes into a purchase decision develops at the stage in which a choice must be made from the accessible alternatives (Solomon et al, 2006). In many cases, there are a number of alternatives (such as water, soft drink or alcohol) a consumer could consider in satisfying a biogenic need, i.e. to conquer thirst. A consumer that has formed a habit overtime to purchase diet Coke for example will always have in mind a diet coke whenever hes thirsty. Branding can also be an influence on the evaluation of alternatives. In a survey of Global Brands, Inter Brand and Business Week identified the significance for companies to create communities around their products and services, which gives the customers the opportunity to feel as if they own the brand (Solomon et al, 2006). Fill (2009) also supported that as a brand becomes established with a buyer, so the psycholo gical benefits of ownership are preferred to competing offerings, and a form of relationship emerges Coke is not only seen as a drink by its consumers, but seen in the light of its heritage and relationship with them( Payne,2007). Brands also create impressions and strong feelings so much that when people see the coke bottle with its red label, and the content, people suddenly feel thirsty and the need to have a drink (Riesenbeck and Perrey, 2007) According to Mintel, (2010), the Interbrand ranked Coca-cola as the number one global brand in the year 2009 and 2010 respectively. Brands can influence a consumers choice in a decision making process, in a study conducted, 51percent of consumers preferred Pepsi over Coke , while in an open test, only 23percent preferred Pepsi over coke(Jenkinson, 1995). In my opinion, Coca-cola consumers have developed a relationship with the brand, which makes them to choose coca-colas brands amongst all other alternatives even in a recession. The econom ic downturn did not affect consumers choices, habits did not change despite the recession; coca-cola consumers did not change their product preferences because a habit has been formed over time. Table 2.1 Buying Decision making process Evaluations After purchase behaviour/feeling Involvement Information search Need recognition Need Purchase Decision Identity Alternatives Source- (Jiang, 2010) 2.2 Attitude Formation Attitude is a persons learned predisposition, tendency to respond to an object in a consistently favourable or unfavourable way (Allport, 1935) as cited by (Jiang, 2010). An attitude formed, lasts over a period of time, an attitude towards what a person eats or drink or developing an attitude towards different brands (such as drinking diet Coke rather than drinking diet Pepsi) or also having an attitude towards a general consumption pattern(such as eating twice to eating once in a day) (Solomon et al, 2006). The Utilitarian Function which is related to the basic principles of reward and punishment will be used to explain why TCCC was not entirely affected by recession. Attitudes are formed based on the presumed product qualities (either pleasure or pain) (Solomon et al, 2006). Attitudes influence a consumers decision making and the goal of a marketer is always to create a positive attitude towards a product or change existing attitudes (Fill, 2009). In a recent research conducted by TCCC to evaluate consumers attitudes towards its brands, it revealed that coca-cola is the brand most associated with happiness (Coca-cola, 2010). The result of the survey revealed that over a half of the people that participated in the research said its the taste that makes them smile others said sharing a bottle of coca-cola with family and friends can provide an opportunity to spend time together (Coca-cola, 2010). Coca-cola consumers have developed an attitude overtime, so the recession would not change their product preference but might just alter their consumption pattern (such as reducing the intake of one three bottles per day to two bottles per day). The theme of the TCCC also stresses straight forward benefits (Coca-cola.Open Happiness). TCCC develops strategies to penetrate their consumers lifestyle to pass a message. In order to promote Coca-Cola Zero (one of Coca-Colas brands),TCCC partnered with the Twentieth Century Fox and director Ja mes Camerons for his epic-adventure and blockbuster film Avatar. This promotional strategy helped to form an attitude towards Coca-Cola Zero and raise its awareness. They also use promotional activities and sponsorship of events such as sponsoring the premiership in England and Scotland to reach a large and well defined audience (football fans) and consumers attitude are formed through these sponsorships in making a purchase decision. Attitudes towards coca-cola could also be formed by the yearly coca-cola adverts, as supported by Pearce and Micheal (2006) aggressive marketing campaigns may be more effective during recessions, as competitors feeling the pinch might attempt to forestall losses by reducing their advertising. During the recession, TCCC, engaged in massive paid advertising to reinforce their brands in the minds of the consumers. Also towards the end of each year, coca-cola does an advert, using the Christmas theme to convey its message to its viewers. The viewers feelings about the context in which an advertisement appears can also influence brand attitudes (Solomon et al, 2006). Liking this Christmas themed adverts would naturally link us to Attitude Formation (three hierarchies of effects), Affect, Behaviour and Beliefs. Affect (like the brand), behaviour (buy the brand), belief (feel satisfied with the brand) or belief (create awareness of the brand), behaviour (buy the brand), affect (like the bra nd) or belief (create awareness of the brand), affect (like the brand), behaviour (buy the brand). Attitude formed over time influences a consumers purchase behaviour, in spite of the recession, it can be argued that the attitude of the TCCCs consumers did not change, and there was a continual process in consumers purchase pattern. Coca-cola was not so affected by the recession because of the consumers favourable attitudes towards their products Table 2.2 Three Hierarchies of Effects Attitudes based on cognitive information processing Affect Attitudes based on behavioural learning processes Behaviour Behaviour Behaviour Beliefs vvv Beliefs vvv Beliefs vvv Attitudes based on hedonic consumption Affect Affect Source- (Jiang, 2010) 2.3 Motivation Motivation is the driving force within individuals that impels them to action, this driving force is produced by a state of tension which exists as the result of an unfilled need (Jaing 2010). Every action is done for a reason. Motivation refers to the process that cause people to behave as they do, motivation occurs when a need (Utilitarian-consumers practical benefits or Hedonic-consumers emotional benefits) is aroused that the consumer wishes to satisfy. The desired end- state is the consumers goal. The degree of arousal is called a drive (Solomon et al, 2006). The purpose of purchasing a drink would be to satisfy a biogenic need, i.e. to conquer thirst. For a consumer to now choose a diet coke because hes thirsty is called psychogenic. Coca-cola motivates its consumers through its themed message (Open Happiness), and this can be explained in the hedonic needs (Consumers emotional benefits) The survey TCCC conducted for their consumers shows that the taste of coca-cola makes them happy. What motivates a consumer might be different compared to the other consumer. A regular coke consumer willing to reduce his sugar consumption will be happy to switch to coke zero which has no sugar and less calories. According to British Soft Drinks Association, (2010), Consumers are loyal to the drinks they know and trust but remain open to innovative products and brand extensions which meet their ever-evolving needs. The industrys ability to provide the public with a wide range of enjoyable and affordable drinks will ensure it remains resilient despite the tough economic climate. TCCC also motivates its consumers by regularly innovating different products to suit specific needs, e.g. no sugar drink (Coke zero). Also viewing it from the Consumer involvement angle, TCCC also motivates its consumers by connecting with millions of them every day through their brands Facebook pages, Twitter and influential blogs, creating a dialogue that allows TCCC to build their brand assets an d strengthen their consumer relationships. Solomon, (2006) defines involvement as a persons perceived relevance of the object based on his/her inherent needs, values, and interests. Through this Fans page on facebook and twitter, consumers can access their advertisements, Coca-Cola applications and downloads, and get live updates from the company. Also TCCC involves their consumers through the Coca-Cola Freestyle machine, this makes the consumers beverage innovators by giving them choices and variety to make more than 100 different branded beverages at the touch of a button, this provides fun, and a relationship that connects the company with its consumers. (Coca-cola, 2010). TCCC motivates their consumers by associating with things that will be of interest to the consumers, for example; on their website is a calculator used for checking amount of calories and quantity of drinks consumed every week so as to help consumers monitor their calorie intake in having a healthy diet and lif estyle. This can help motivate a consumer to purchase TCCCs product because they have shown the consumer the consumer that in as much as they want to make profit, they also care about them and their health. The recession did not really affect TCCCs sales because of the motivation TCCC tries to create and the relationship they have been able to build overtime with their consumers. CONCLUSION 3.1 Conclusion Understanding consumers behaviour is key to having a successful company; marketers need to deepen their research on their consumers because the consumers are becoming aware of the important role they play in their consumption pattern. Competitors are always also looking for tactics to grow and influence new consumers, and any organisation that does not meet up with consumers expectations would be losing a consumer. Companies should look for ways to retain their current customers and also focus on getting new ones attracting new customers should be a priority in a recession (Pearce and Michael 2006). Organisations should actively engage their customers more than before.
Saturday, July 20, 2019
Every week more than 60 million Americans turn their television sets to tune to the popular crime investigation drama CSI: Crime Scene Investigation or one of its countless spin offs, which have become increasingly popular among the American public (Shelton, n.d.). The show has been a top rated drama since it was first aired in 2001, it has received several Emmy nominations, and many even claimed it has lead to the considerable increase in college students studying forensic science. Recently however, despite its many achievements several newspapers and magazine articles began warning about the impact the shows influence is having on our criminal justice system; they referred to the phenomenon as the CSI Effect. Max Houck, Director of the Forensic Science Initiative at West Virginia University, explains the CSI effect as Ã¢â¬Å"basically the perception of the near-infallibility of forensic science in response to the TV showÃ¢â¬ ( Podlas, 2010, p. 99). The concern among criminal jus tice experts and prosecutors is that the so called CSI effect creates unrealistic expectations that every case must be solved with high tech forensic tests, which they believe, has a significant impact on juror decision making. Exposure to the dramatized and fictional depiction of crime solving portrayed by these television shows has had a significant impact on viewerÃ¢â¬â¢s conception of reality, which has negatively altered the expectation of jurors and influenced jury verdicts. In order to comprehend the impact of television crime dramas on the criminal justice system, it is important to understand how the CSI effect operates. The relationship between entertainment programming and viewer beliefs is based on the media theory of cultivation. The cultivation theor... ... more than twelve million people tuning in to watch CSI (Shelton, n.d.), and with science and technology continuing to evolve so rapidly, we will continue to see a substantial influence on American criminal justice through their impacts on potential juror expectations. Our criminal justice system should seek to adapt to these changes as supposed to fight them, the way the system is set up juror verdicts are expected to be a reflection of our societyÃ¢â¬â¢s values. With those value will change and jury verdict will reflect those changes in popular culture. In adapting to such changes, we must invest in funding and training law enforcement to collect and analyze scientific evidence. While we adapt to those changes it is crucial that the jury is carefully instructed about the nature of such evidence as well as properly selected by a Voir Dire process to identify biases.
Friday, July 19, 2019
The Soviet Union has had numerous leaders throughout itÃ¢â¬â¢s existence as a country. However, there are a few leaders that will forever be in Russian history books and lectures. Among those leaders who have had the largest influence on the Soviet Union are; Vladimir Lenin, Peter the Great, Alexander Kerensky, and Joseph Stalin to name a few. While all of the leaders are interesting and have influence on Russia, this research paper will specifically focus on Joseph Stalin. Joseph Stalin lead the Soviet Union for over 20 years and he certainly had a unique way of doing so. While Stalin did contribute to turning Russia into a world superpower, he was a murderous dictator who is among many things, responsible for millions of innocent lives, genocides, and famines. While StalinÃ¢â¬â¢s birthday is printed in different places as two different dates, Iosiph Vissarionovich Djugashvili was born on December 21, 1879 in Gori, Georgia (Montefiore 2004). Stalin was born to Ã¢â¬Å"illiterate peasant parentsÃ¢â¬ , Vissarion and Ekaterina, and his father is said to be the cause of his ruthless soul. According to the Jewish Library, he was undeservingly beaten by his father and this was reason for him to have revengeful feelings towards everyone who had power over him (Jewish Virtual Library 2011). He eventually would chang his name to Joseph Stalin, which means Ã¢â¬Å"Man of SteelÃ¢â¬ . Some sources say that Lenin is referenced in his name change (stal + Lenin = Stalin) (Jewish Virtual Library 2011). When Stalin was just seven years old his face was permanently scared after he acquired a case of smallpox. Iosiph attended church school when he was young and would also do so later under the preference of his mother (Radzinsky 1996). Stalin was involved in two ac... ... of tyrant reign, millions of innocent Soviet people were enduring murders, false imprisonments, famines, brainwashing, and terror. They feared constantly that they be subjected to unjustified arrest or execution. They feared for the lives of their friends and family and also for the future of their children and the future of Russia. Stalin died on March 19, 1962 in Kazan where he was banished to. It is thought that he had help, like his father, in dying. IÃ¢â¬â¢m sure that the Soviet people breathed a sigh of relief, they no longer had to live in such an intense fear and anxiety. However terrible he was many Russians still believed him to be a great leader. Stalin was a murderous dictator who is among many things, responsible for millions of innocent lives, genocides, and famines however, Russia has Stalin to thank for turning the country into a world superpower.
Thursday, July 18, 2019
Intro Ã¢â¬â slide 1 Ã¢â¬â acetate 1 The skeleton of a human foetus is formed from tough but flexible cartilage that acts as a blueprint for bone construction. During ossification ( the changing of cartilage to bone) which begins before birth, the cartilage is broken down and the resulting space is filled by bone building mineral salts and protein fibres secreted by bone cells. Humans have a bony endoskeleton made up of 206 bones, although we are born with up to 300, but many of these fuse during childhood. slide 2 The skeleton is divided into two parts ; the axial and the appendiculur. Axial skeleton The axial skeleton consists of the skull, backbone and rib cage which forms the upright axis of the body. It helps to protect the brain, spinal cord and organs in the chest. Appendicular skeleton The appendicular skeleton consists of the upper and lower limbs and the pectoral (shoulder) and pelvis and girdles. The human pelvis is adapted for an upright stance. the lower limbs support the upper body and enable walking and other locomotory movements to take place, where as the upper limbs are used for manipulation. Slide three Just read off screen Slide four Ã¢â¬â acetate 2 Muscles are used to move your bones. Most muscles are joined at both ends to bones. They are joined to bones by non elastic tendons. Bones are held in place by strong fibres called ligaments. Slide five Ã¢â¬â acetate 3 Joints are formed when two or more bones come together. Most joints allow bones to move. The amount of movement depends on the type of joint. The elbow joint is a hinge joint. Joints that allow movement are called synovial joints. A synovial joint s adapted to enable a joint to move easily. They contain cartilage, ligaments, bones, synovial fluid and a synovial membrane. Slide six The bones provide the solid base on which the tendons and ligaments are fixed. They are very resistant to being compressed, bent and stretched. The cartilage is the smooth layer which covers the ends of the bones and which stops the bones rubbing together. It has high tensile strength, but it is not rigid. Can compressed and is able to act as a shock absorber. The ligaments are strong fibres that hold bones firmly together. they form a protective cover around the joint. Are very strong and sufficiently elastic to allow movement when the bones in the joint move, so reducing the chance of dislocating a joint.